A caliphate may be the Islamic kind of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. The Caliph’s position is on the basis of the notion of a successor to Muhammad’s political authority. In accordance with Sunnis, a Caliph can be any pious Muslim who’s elected by the Muslims or their representatives; and in accordance with Shia Islam, an Imam descended in a line from the Ahl al-Bayt.
The Umayyad Caliphate was the next of the four Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad (PBUH). It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Even though the Umayyad family originally came from the town of Mecca, Damascus was the capital of these Caliphate. Eventually, it would cover more than five million square miles, rendering it the greatest empire the world had yet seen. The Umayyads established the greatest Arab-Muslim state in history. From the time of prophet Muhammad until 1924, successive and contemporary caliphates were held by various dynasties, such as the Rashidun Caliphate of the first four caliphs after Muhammad, the Umayyads located in Damascus and Córdoba, the Abbasids located in Baghdad & later in Cairo, the Fatimids located in Cairo, and finally the Turkish Ottoman Empire located in Istanbul.